Terpene Summary (Search individual terpene name for additional details):
The following is an excerpt from Ed Rosenthal's "Marijuana Growers Handbook"
"...Terpenes are the aromatic molecules that live in the resinous trichomes of the cannabis plant. The cannabis plant works VERY hard at both producing the resinous glands from which the terpenes are created. Why does a plant produce these scents you may ask? Well, biologically speaking, plants produce terpenes for one of three reasons. 1) to attract pollinators 2) to repel or kill herbivores 3) to attract predators of herbivores. Plants can't run away from predators or relocate themselves, so they have to adapt to where they are planted by producing a particular scent. Before flowering and at certain times of the day, the associated terpene odors are faint but with continued flowering, the plant invests more in the production of these terpenes for both protective and reproductive purposes. Cannabis is wind pollenated in outdoor environments, where indoor plants are selectively pollenated/cultivated for their specific terpene and cannabinoid profile....There are over 100 terpenes in the cannabis plant, and perhaps many more if one were to consider all the variations within each terpene. Take for example, limonene, which contributes to a citrus smell, but depending on which variety of citrus you are smelling orange vs a lemon the terpenes might be slightly different, but you are still smelling limonene. "
Ed also states, "By temporarily altering brain function, terpenes affect mood, sensitivity and perceptions, including balance and pain"
Dr. Bonni Goldstein states "The best way to determine the effects of a particular chemovar or product is to first evaluate the content of phytocannbinoids, calculate the ratio of CBD to THC, if appropriate and then look at the dominating terpenes. This assessment will give SIGNIFICANTLY more information than the incorrect terms of "sativa" or "Indica".
Cannabis Is Medicine: How Medical Cannabis and CBD Are Healing Everything from Anxiety to Chronic Pain, by Bonni Goldstein, Little, Brown Spark, 2020, pp. 14–21.
Ed Rosenthal's Marijuana Grower's Handbook: Your Complete Guide for Medical & Personal Marijuana Cultivation, by Ed Rosenthal, Quick American Publishing, 2010, pp. 20–30.
- Medical Benefits: Insomnia, Stress, Depression, Anxiety, Pain, Convulsions
- Effects: Calming, Sedating
- Aromas: Floral, Citrus, Spice
- Also found in: Lavender, Citrus, Laurel, Birch, Rosewood
- Boiling Point: 198°C (398°F)
- Understanding Terpenes: Linalool (news–2018) https://cannabisnow.com/understanding-terpenes-linalool/
- Medical Benefits: Antiseptic, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Inflammation
- Effects: Sedating, Relaxing, Enhances THC's Psychoactivity
- Aromas: Musk, Cloves, Herbal, Citrus
- Also found in: Mango, Thyme, Citrus, Lemongrass, Bay Leaves
- Boiling Point: 168°C (334°F)
- Understanding Terpenes: Myrcene (news–2018) https://cannabisnow.com/understanding-terpenes-myrcene/
- Medical Benefits: Anti-depression, Anti-anxiety, Gastric Reflux, Antifungal
- Effects: Elevated Mood, Stress Relief
- Aromas: Citrus, Lemon, Orange
- Also found in: Citrus Rinds, Juniper, Peppermint
- Boiling Point: 176°C (349°F)
- Limonene: An Uplifting Terpene To Energize Your High. (news – 2018)
- Medical Benefits: Anti-inflammatory, Antibacterial, Pain
- Effects: Suppresses Appetite
- Aromas: Woody, Earthy
- Also found in: Hops, Coriander
- Boiling Point: 198°C (388°F)
- Humulene: The Terpene That Can Kill Cancer Cells: Learn everything you need to know about Humulene – a terpene that gives your strain a unique taste and smell: https://cannabisnow.com/humulene-the-terpene-that-can-kill-cancer-cells/?utm_campaign=Daily%20Morning%20News&utm_medium=email&_hsmi=98264183&_hsenc=p2ANqtz-9k4DYT0zus1T_j3ePdnhKHL3oN6Drhsf_P-p7avGzD_HTNI7DNQpF1Z2brguIu-sGNUPLD50EQTkS6aUE5KpAewlakBQ&utm_content=98264181&utm_source=hs_email
- Medical Benefits: Inflammation, Asthma (Bronchodilator)
- Effects: Memory Retention, Alertness
- Aromas: Sharp, Sweet, Pine
- Also found in: Pine Needles, Conifers, Sage
- Boiling Point: 155°C (311°F)
- Understanding Terpenes: Pinene (news–2018) https://cannabisnow.com/understanding-terpenes-pinene/
- Medical Benefits: Antioxidant, Inflammation, Muscle Spasms, Pain, Insomnia
- Effects: No detectable physical effects
- Aromas: Pepper, Wood, Spice
- Also found in: Pepper, Cloves, Hops, Basil, Oregano
- Boiling Point: 160°C (320°F)
- Medical Benefits: Antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-cancer, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory.
- Aromas: "sugary and rosy to citrus"
- Also found in: Geraniums, Roses, Lemongrass, Peaches, Passion Fruit, amongst others.
- Boiling point:
- Understanding Terpenes: Geraniol (news–2018) https://cannabisnow.com/understanding-terpenes-geraniol/
- What is Hashishene? Examining the unique chemistry of hash. https://cannigma.com/plant/terpenes/what-is-hashishene-examining-unique-chemistry-hashish/
- Therapeutic Applications of Terpenes on Inflammatory Diseases: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2021.704197/full
- Medicinal properties of terpenes found in Cannabis sativa and Humulus lupulus: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0223523418306408?via%3Dihub
- Therapeutic Potential of Volatile Terpenes and Terpenoids from Forests for Inflammatory Diseases: https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/21/6/2187
- Anti-Cancer Potential of Cannabinoids, Terpenes, and Flavonoids Present in Cannabis: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/12/7/1985
- Taming THC: Potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/51485891_Taming_THC_Potential_cannabis_synergy_and_phytocannabinoid-terpenoid_entourage_effects
- What are cannabis terpenes and what do they do? https://www.leafly.com/news/cannabis-101/terpenes-the-flavors-of-cannabis-aromatherapy
- 15 Cannabis Terpenes Explained (Complete Visual Guide): https://www.greencultured.co/15-cannabis-terpenes-explained-complete-visual-guide/
- Cannabis Terpenes boiling points chart: https://www.projectcbd.org/sites/projectcbd/files/downloads/cannabis-terpenes-boiling-points-chart.pdf
- What are Terpenes? (review - cannainsider, unknown date) https://www.cannainsider.com/reviews/cannabis-terpenes/
- Terpenes not listed: Delta 3 Carene, Eucalyptol, Nerolidol, Terpineol, Terpinolene.